Reinforced aerostat technology
for safe hydrogen use in airships


Spreading information about safe Airship’s flights for a better world

Reintroducing airships into the world’s transportation-mix could contribute to lowering the transport sector’s carbon emissions and can play a role in establishing a sustainable hydrogen-based economy. Lighter-than-air aircraft could ultimately increase the feasibility of a 100% sustainable world. Airships have been used in the past and provided great services to society. Due to current needs, airships should be reconsidered and returned to the skies. Our project presents arguments in favor of this. The development of an airship industry will reduce the costs of fast delivery cargo shipping. The possibility to transport hydrogen without the need to liquefy it would reduce the costs for the development of a sustainable and hydrogen-based economy, ultimately increasing the feasibility of a 100% renewable world.

Science must evolves to be relevant to society as occurred in space industry with risk management lessons.
Humans have the option to use the results of scientific endeavour (Green Technologies & Solutions) or dispute and ignore them (like some people on climate change).

A fail-safe aerostat system is disclosed, for structural support and network interconnection, applicable to a number of lighter-than-air lift based system. The invention describes a system having optimized connection reinforce structure, and a integrating structure, reinforcing a hydrogen cell or cells with a fail-safe design. It is theorized a structure strong enough to withstand blast forces, preventing damage and fire to spread and an automated self-control hydrogen vessel or vessels operating independently to obtain buoyancy lift force and multi parameters control.

A new concept of lighter than air aircraft by bringing hydrogen safety concept to the materials level and the designing architecture at the macro and micro scales. In addition, the simplicity of the concept allows for high degree of integrations that can make practical the implementation of hydrogen use.

The technology could be applied to any aerostat. An aerostat is a lighter than air craft that gains its lift through the use of a buoyant gas. Aerostats gain their lift from large gas bags filled with a lifting gas that is less dense than the surrounding air.

The two primary lifting gases used by airships have been hydrogen and helium. Helium on earth it is relatively rare however, hydrogen is the third most abundant element on the Earth’s surface, mostly in the form of chemical compounds such as hydrocarbons and water. Hydrogen is the earth’s lightest element, and it can be obtained easily and inexpensively, hydrogen has enormous potential as a clean power source for future generation of vehicles. Environmentally and climatically clean over the entire length of conversion chain, from production to utilization.

Catastrophic failure results from a combinations of factors. Almost everybody remember the old adage that “The main problem with the concept of hydrogen airships however is hydrogen flammability”. Hydrogen flammability is one of the issues that cause greatest concern with the concept of hydrogen airships but is a oversimplification fallacy. This myth starts with a false assumption of tragic moments that remain unforgettable as the Hidenburg, Concorde or accidents and disasters in spaceflight history. A deep-rooted, popular and almost universal assumption based tha tragedy and accidents arise from a single, intrinsic, and imutable factor. Hindsight bias misleads a reviewer into simplitying the causes of an accident, highlighting a single element as the cause and overlooking multiple contributing factors. Individually, no one factor caused the event, but when they came together, disaster struck.

In addition to the famous Hindenburg disaster, dozens of hydrogen airships were destroyed by fire, and no American airship has been inflated with hydrogen since the crash of the U.S. Army airship Roma in 1922. The use of hydrogen as a lifting gas for passenger airships was completely abandoned by the late 1930s.

Helium’s non-flammable nature makes it the only practical lifting gas for manned lighter-than-air flight, but it is scarce and expensive, and the use of helium can reduce a rigid airship’s payload by more than half. The performance deficiencies of the prior arts are overcome by designing a new generation of aerostat based on the buoyancy reinforce and integrating structure, could make them safer and resilient in face of disaster, and fly a lighter, more efficient aerostats.

The lighter than air aircraft suffers tremendously worldwide because it did not fundamentally improve the architecture, and making the hydrogen safe is the final solution in the aerostat industry.

A fail-safe design that in the event of a specific type of failure, responds in a way that will cause no or minimal harm to other equipment, the environment or to people. The system’s design prevents or mitigates unsafe consequences of the system’s failure. Several embodiments described herein enable a aerostat fail-safe, use approach that leverages the exceptional properties of lattice, tensile integrity, membrane structures, and porous structures called schwarzites designed with computer algorithms, while gains its lift through the use of hydrogen as a buoyant gas. The resulting combination of hydrogen economy, its environmental and climatic relevance, and structural lightness and strength, significantly enlarging the potential of lighter than air craft in a manner that will enable aerostat to become widespread much faster than would otherwise be the case.
The present invention achieves this object by providing a buoyancy platform comprising a integrating and reinforce structure.

This invention is directed to a structural architecture for future lighter than air aircraft architecture (BIS) Buoyancy Integrating Structure terminal which provides an modular and secured buoyancy platform to deliver the truly efficient purpose-built architecture, across various air lift interfaces with multi-dimensional platforms for the complete light, resistant and aerodynamic architecture convergence. The BIS includes capabilities for maximizing the design utilization efficiency and optimizing the structural and material resource managements across the multi-modular structure

A buoyancy platform is provided including the following:
A Integrating connection reinforce structure—(Shell Lace Structure, lattice-shell, Membrane structures, tensegrity structures, lattice structure, web-like structure and schwarzites structures) increase safety and allow the adjustment of different pressures in individual sections,
More specifically, an inventive buoyancy platform can also be assembled in a modular manner by combining individual portions provided with buoyancy bodies and optionally with reinforce integrating structure or the like to provide the final platform.

In addition, the simplicity of the concept allows for high degree of integrations that can make practical the implementation of safety hydrogen use.

At lest one Hydrogen Vessel with a covering element, made of a gas-tight, pressure- and fire resistant material and may be used with a connection reinforce and integrating structure. Buoyancy bodies separated from each other and attached in a stationary manner, providing one or several cells separated from each other, which can be filled with hydrogen.
The structure can either be a flexible material(e.g. flame-resistant meta-aramid), rigid material, (e.g. nanostructured metal alloys) or semi-rigid material(e.g. aerogel)

The buoyancy platform of the present invention is not limited to aerostats, but may basically be used for any purpose, e.g. as a launch pad and landing space, long-term site observation, defense applications, surveillance operations, scientific, observational, base for equipments and machinery, wind energy extraction, reduced impact logging, perform tasks such as near space research, while keeping costs well below those of low-Earth orbit satellites, carry a passenger pod, for tourists and science crews, meteorological measurements. Carrie payloads with instrumentation including, antemmas, radio transmission, network infrastructure, transport, logistics and distribution, passenger transport, disaster relief support, emergency and rescue services, forest protection, fire fighting, base for lifting equipment and devices and other purposes

Theoretically, a different gas than hydrogen may be used for filling the buoyancy bodies. Other cheap gases, such as methane, carbon monoxide, ammonia and natural gas, have even less lifting capacity and are flammable, toxic, corrosive, or all three (neon is even more costly than helium, with less lifting capacity).
Operational considerations such as whether the lift gas can be economically vented and produced in flight for control of buoyancy (as with hydrogen) or even produced as a byproduct affect the practical choice of lift gas in airship designs.
For reasons of costs and in view of availability, however, hydrogen will be the gas of choice.

The material of the buoyancy bodies is not particularly limited
In some embodiments, membranes made of meta aramid polymer can be used in order to provide the required flexibility as well as sufficient pressure resistance and tensile strength and, at the same time, to ensure that expansibility is limited in the pressurized state.

In some embodiments, the structure can be based on nanostructured metal alloys, carbon fiber, aerogel or somelight weight material. Mechanical properties of material include the yield stregth, tensile streght, fatigue streght, crack resistance, and other characteristics. Even though another advantage of the invention is that the entire platform can be constructed of lightweight components.

In some embodiments, the BIS approach combines ultra-stiff and ultra-strong materials (such as aerogel and nanostructured metal alloys) that provide higher strength than conventional materials with highly optimized truss architectures that enable unprecedented degrees of freedom to tailor the mechanical performance of ultralight lattices structure.

In some embodiments, the system will be characterized by a modular lattice model, where different material technologies as aerogel, metaramida, carbon fiber or films, nanostructured metal alloys, and others new materials, could be combined on a common platform to complement each other in an optimum way for different lift requirements and environments, the structural architecture for the BIS terminal of the present invention is a set of robust solutions which provides a way to build buoyancy lift platform via common modular components, which is technically called “Hydrogen Vessel (HYVE), Buoyancy Integrating Structure (BIS), in a more technical sense”.

In some preferred embodiments, the reinforce and integrating structure is manufactured to have prismatic shape, and buoyancy bodies are symmetrically arranged around honeycomb grid.

Lattice structures provide high torsional and bending rigidity at low weight
Honeycomb structure involves the controlled creation of internal boundaries so as to obstruct dislocation motion. Such strategies invariably compromise ductility, the ability of the material to deform, stretch, or change shape permanently without breaking. We assess current understanding of strengthening and propose a methodology for engineering coherent, modular, internal boundaries, specifically involving lattice, tensegrity, and membrane structure. Additionally, we discuss perspectives on strengthening and preserving lightness along with potential applications for improving failure tolerance and improve stability.

Systems which are composed of structural elements which themselves have structure lattice systems benefit from significantly enhanced mechanical properties such as lightweight high-strength characteristics and an increased resistance to crack propagation
Also for this reason, the preferred shape of the inventive platform is a honeycomb.
Each aforementioned structure module is an open module which is extensible, upgradeable, reconfigurable and removable.
It has been designed to enable the aeronautic industry and engineers to accelerate the evolution of innovative, differentiated and safe platform designs for the future, light and robust convergence.
One embodiment of this invention is a system comprising a a buoyancy structure comprising a gas enclosure and reinforce device that integrates one or multiple lighter-than-air gas enclosures (Hydrogen Vessel)

Furthermore, in some embodiments, the architecture for the HYVE structure of the present invention is one or a group of open structural modules which are obvious variants, mutually inclusive and capable of use together as a whole system body for the design of the future aerostat, desing based on modular architecture technology, so that the structure can support different safety standards and integrate the various modular parts into a flexible, cost effective architecture. Broadly, lattices can be thought of as any repeating cellular structure, have a basic topology or structure that repeats – either consistently or with some variation. Lattices offer a method of reducing this complexity significantly. By using a common cell topology to fill the design space. Honeycomb structures are structures that have the geometry of a honeycomb to allow the minimization of the amount of used material to reach minimal weight and minimal material cost. The geometry of honeycomb structures can vary widely but the common feature of all such structures is an array of hollow cells formed between thin vertical walls. The cells are often columnar and hexagonal in shape.
Other example are biomimetic designs as based on the bird bones. Bone gains strength and flexibility from the core material, but also from the way it cleverly layers its structural elements. In addition to structural hierarchy and super strong composition, bones can evolve with slightly different shapes, sizes and angles. They’ve grown resistance to weight in a number of directions—vertical, horizontal, and diagonal—and this built-in variability makes bones more resilient when accidents happen. Bones are solid on the outside but rather hollow on the inside. This makes them lightweight and easy to move, and also exceedingly firm. To that end, although it has a rather rigid exterior surface. Bionic Partition, in terms of its macro design—the larger frame—and micro design, which includes the lattices connecting the bigger perimeter, create a strong, efficient structure between two fixed points. The micro elements of the partition mimic birds bone, filling open spaces with grid structures. The resulting design is a web-like pattern that forms a net of optimized, load-bearing points. The final configuration requires minimal material, walls must be as light as possible, and consume the smallest amount of space, and ensuring quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, to hydrogen gas.

Tensegrity structures are based on the combination of a few simple design patterns: loading members only in pure compression or pure tension, meaning the structure will only fail if the cables yield or the rods buckle, preload or tensional prestress, which allows cables to be rigid in tension, mechanical stability, which allows the members to remain in tension/compression as stress on the structure increases.
Single-surface structural technique called lattice-shell and Shell Lace Structure. The structural and fabrication technique combines digital modelling, digital analysis, with cost-effective laser-cutting fabrication, transforming flat sheet materials into lightweight self-supporting structures. Iterative analysis produces highly efficient structures that respond to the environment and minimize weight and wastage. Shell Lace Structures are optimized through curvature, corrugations, and perforations. The technique is inspired by nature; Sea Shells gain strength from curvilinear geometry growing in thin layers over time, only where they need to. Curvatures, together with corrugations, lock in the stiffness. Perforations minimize weight by removing material where the structure does not require strength, bringing lightness. This facilitates the production of the inventive platform, because only a few different modules can then be specifically combined to provide the platform best suited for the respective planned designe.
Just like the other examples, this one only serves for illustration purposes and does not limit the invention in any way. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes could be made to the embodiments described above without departing from the broad inventive concept thereof. It is understood, therefore, that this invention is not limited to the particular embodiments disclosed, but it is intended to cover modifications within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.
For example, membrane structures can also be provided within the buoyancy bodies.
Membrane structures are spatial structures made out of tensioned membranes. The structural use of membranes can be divided into pneumatic structures, tensile membrane structures, and cable domes. In these three kinds of structure, membranes work together with cables, columns and other construction members to find a form.
Obviously different shapes and/or connectivities at any one or more levels can be used, ad infinitum, to yield an infinite number of different membrane structure, lattice structure, and tensegrity structure which may have different properties and it is beyond the scope of this work to list in detail the full spectrum of the structures which may be built in this manner.
Apart from the geometry-based diversity discussed above, for a given geometry, additional versatility may be introduced by having different components and/or levels of the system expanding to different extents.
Obviously, for any given geometry, there are many such variations that may be introduced, which could have an effect on the overall properties of the system.
The concept presented here could be employed in a much wider variety of systems with a range of mechanical properties and applications.

One of the more interesting features of these systems is that they could be engineered to have a variable cells size and/or shape (Figure 2).
The properties shown here are scale-independent, meaning that the concept can be employed at any length scale ranging from the micro-scale to the macro-scale.
The limitation of the work proposed here is that it is based on a model.
For example, the systems were meant to represent ideal, defect resilient systems which, for example, at (Figure 7) are made up of perfectly rigid squares of equal shape and size.
The systems being proposed here could be engineered in a slightly different manner, for example, through the use of membrane structure.
In this work we have proposed a novel aerostat system based on the integrating reinforce structure, mechanism.
It was shown that these systems exhibit a wide range of properties which include auxetic behaviour as well as the ability to have different sized cells that can open to various extents.


The inherent simplicity of the Buoyancy Integrating Structure (BIS), highly tolerant to physical damage, suited to airships, along with its ability to use hydrogen as the lifting gas, to generate static lift sufficient for flight, and a special design that offers a virtually zero catastrophic failure mode, results in a advantage over the state of the art airships. Inspired by nature – and designed to a safety hydrogen use, will be customized to the needs of individual designers. By offering different levels of design within each purpose, BIS would be able to achieve the structure differential need to operate a successful objective, give more people access to the benefits of aerostat and still look after the environment.

In some embodiments, the Hydrogen Vessel (HYVE) cell could be treated as an isolated structure, It is well known that the boundary conditions imposed by an attached grid substantially impact the amount of power that can be produced by active explosion and must be considered in panels material strain rate.

In some embodiments, the cell endured beyond the limits of anticipated fire and blast conditions, lateral pressure exerted by approaching, blast waves or fire cannot be transmitted from one buoyancy body to the next, as it is the case when divisions by partition walls are provided.

In some preferred embodiments, different lifting power arising in one or various chambers thus provide the platform with buoyancy stability.

Furthermore, one or more Hydrogen Vessels (HYVE) may be attached to the Integrating Structure (IS) element, e.g. lattice structure of a material having low density and high strength, e.g. nanostructured metal alloys.

They increase, on the one hand, safety in case of a complete breakdown of the Hydrogen Vessel, on the other hand they facilitate integration and hydrogen distribution of the buoyancy platform into operation.

The method describes a modular reconfiguration scheme of one or a plurality of hydrogen vessels connected in network capable of changing their interconnection.

One example provided is a hydrogen cell stack that has a high- safety hydrogen accommodated therein and may for example be manufactured to have a prismatic shape and are orthogonally arranged regularly and disposed in a integrating reinforce structure, manufactured in a lattice form.
An object of the present invention is to provide a new type of hydrogen cells with a very high volume efficiency and at the same time be capable of enduring high pressure of a gas and change in pressure, while enabling to make the cell of any size by modular extension in any of the three spatial directions.

Further, another object of the present invention is to provide a buoyancy structure including high volume efficiency and preventing fire or explosion on a cell from being spread, by allowing for integration of a secondary reinforce structure.
Another object of the invention is to provide a vessel that is suitable for allowing buoyancy control.
Still another object is to provide a vessel concept that is modular and scalable to any size by use of repetitive, modular elements.
Hereinafter, technical ideas of the present invention will be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
However, the accompanying drawings are only an example shown for explaining in more detail the technical idea of the present invention and therefore, the technical idea of the present invention is not limited to the accompanying drawings.
The basic hexagonal shape may be modified into more general prismatic shapes
Using innovative new methods in connection with generative design, offering different levels of volume, aerodynamic and buoyancy for purpose, the resulting designs are both optimized for performance and weight and can be as stiff or as flexible as needed for the intended application, all intended to provide flexible and personalized options for a small cost and high security lighter than air aircraft.The generative design process, which centers around computing power to find optimized design solutions based on parameters that are set by a designer, is not only a way of increasing design quality and performance – but is also capable of dramatically reducing costs and materials in an effort to optimize manufacturing strategies.

In some embodiments, modular structure each HYVE cell has its own built-in microcontroller that records relevant physical parameters, such as the temperature and the buoyancy state of the cell. As a result, each HYVE knows what condition it is in. The HYVE communicate to each other via wireless or power wiring between HYVEs. As a power-line communication. They can also communicate with other devices, such as the on-board computer, which uses the data from the cells to calculate how much buoyancy the HYVE has, the state of cell. If a cell is empty, but the others still have hydrogen stored, the aerostat does not have to stop, Since one HYVE with lower capacity hardly affects the overall range of a BIS. Rather, the empty hydrogen cell simply decouples from the cluster, acting like a current by-pass. The others continue to deliver hydrogen, and the empty cells are replaced, and if a HYVE cell malfunctions, it is not necessary to bring the airship to the workshop. Since the aerostat can have more than one cells, it does not depend on any individual one. And in a repair, it is sufficient to merely replace the single HYVE cell.
In many embodiments, intelligent control network will sense the needs and adapt for the perfect fit, offering volume, temperature, pressure, hydrogen, stability, buoyancy and flight control as required;
In many embodiments, the integrating system can be compared to neural network, with a network of intelligence pulsating through the BIS. This network will be absorbed-incorporated into the structural materials. As a ‘Smart’ system they can perform numerous functions, recognizing the environment, using sensor and activator systems that give the structure a certain level of artificial intelligence, allowing them to adapt to the BIS’ needs.
In many embodiments, the structure could further comprise multiple sensor as an altitude sensor, position sensor and actuator to provide a specified buoyancy and fly control, system controller accompanying computer vision system, that combine data from all sensors, monitoring its weak points, a module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics. The BIS comes with fully redundant systems, which means if one fail, another stands ready to back it up, it must protect itself from mishaps. That’s the significance of the BIS’s redundant mechanical systems, fly systems, buoyancy systems, sensors systems, and computer systems.

In some embodiments, the object of the present invention was thus the provision of a buoyancy platform having a Smart Systems for Structural Response Control, buoyancy properties and particularly having better protection against effects due to flammability and explosive reactions.
Technological advancements and efficient devices providing alternatives for improving safety, and performance (against weather and pressure demands) of a new structural aerostat systems. The use of control and monitoring devices to design smart structures which not only rely on their own strength to withstand weather and pressure demands but also on these devices or systems to dissipate dynamic energy without undergoing significant deformation. In addition to and in conjunction with the control, a quick and accurate monitoring and damage assessment is of paramount importance. It presents a base-isolation systems (that cut off the transmission of shock waves’s kinetic energy and thermal diffusion to the structure), control systems (which apply a control force to produce extra damping mechanism using tendons or bracings).

In some embodiments, smart control would regulate the aerostat’s buoyancy accordingly having a dynamic response as a smart hydrogen’s grid – each cell can switch by the second – it can react dynamically to varying buoyancy levels throughout the fly, meaning aerostat buoyancy levels would remain constant during atmospheric pressure and temperature variations. One of BIS’s goals is to engineer a smart architecture adjustable with a network for controlling the aerostat’s buoyancy, temperature, pressure, humidity, stability and fly control. Pumping hydrogen through a network of channels enables the buoyancy control of functional modules. Fluidic channels can be compared to the cardiovascular system, for example.

In some embodiments, the BIS’s structure and responsive Hydrogen Vessel combines isolation, cover and structural protection (subject to stresses and strains) with an integrated network pulsing through it, which can identify and respond to the specific needs of each HYVE.
In some embodiments, the lattice and honeycomb structure and integrating network will create the perfect combination of strength, light and space. It is both light and strong because its lattice structure carries tension only where necessary, leaving space elsewhere. By using lattice structures, the structure has the strength it needs, but can also make the most of extra space where required.

In some embodiments, a slender crack in a HYVE won’t damage the BIS array because it has a chain of other HYVEs to back it up. The grid might redirect some hydrogen cell to cell. Other hydrogen might get focused toward special cells for volume control.

In some embodiments, the structure, called BIS, is a 3D open-cellular structure made up of lattice, tensegrity or membrane structures of interconnected hollow cells. In addition to its ultra-low density, the material’s cellular architecture gives rise to unprecedented mechanical behavior for a aerostat, including recovery from compression strain and high energy absorption, vibration or shock energy damping.

In some embodiments, a performance enhancement of the system using channel hydrogen exchangers, with, fluidic cells and a series of ducts, channeled through the system as a fluidic hydrogen grid.
In some embodiments, pipe or tube connections extend from at least one device for generating pressurized hydrogen, in order to provide for a uniform filing of the buoyancy body.
In some embodiments, the channels can be embedded either into hard or soft materials, depending on the purpose of use. For example, the feel and shape of a soft and elastic film is better suited for integration into a membrane structure compared to rigid, which in turn are better to a lattice structure platform

In some embodiments, lightweight longitudinal integrating structures as channels can be added between the pannels, giving the internal structure the appearance of a huge bird cage or web-like structure

In some embodiments, the buoyancy bodies can, if their construction does not allow otherwise, have pressure relief valves in order to prevent overstretching or even bursting of the buoyancy bodies in case of malfunctions or overpressure.

In many embodiments, a cover coated as a membrane, controls the amount of UV radiation, humidity, gas permeability and temperature.

Newton’s First Law of Motion:

An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force.

Newton’s first law explains why it takes extra force to get moving

this same principle serves to explain the difficulty of starting a project

Some interesting articles to read:

Flow Rectification in Loopy Network Models of Bird Lungs
Quynh M. Nguyen, Anand U. Oza, Joanna Abouezzi, Guanhua Sun, Stephen Childress, Christina Frederick, Leif Ristroph
Physical Review Letters
Vol.: 126, 114501
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.114501

Compliant Polymer Origami Bellows in Cryogenics
Kjell Westra, Francis Dunne, Stasia Kulsa, Mathew Hunt, Jacob Leachman
Vol.: 103226
DOI: 10.1016/j.cryogenics.2020.103226

Using the jet stream for sustainable airship and balloon transportation of cargo and hydrogen
Julian David Hunt, Edward Byers, Abdul-Lateef Balogun, Walter Leal Filho, Angeli Viviani Colling, Andreas Nascimento, Yoshihide Wada
Energy Conversion and Management
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecmx.2019.100016

On Elastic Geodesic Grids and Their Planar to Spatial Deployment
Stefan Pillwein, Kurt Leimer, Michael Birsak, Przemyslaw Musialski
DOI: 10.1145/3386569.3392490
Link: https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.00201

Tsugite: Interactive Design and Fabrication of Wood Joints
Maria Larsson, Hironori Yoshida, Nobuyuki Umetani, Takeo Igarashi
Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery
DOI: 10.1145/3379337.3415899

Links to follow the trend: